Derk, D., Bos, A. R., & von Grumbkow, J. (2008). Emoticons in computer-mediated communication: Social motives and social context. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 11(1), 99-101.
Derk and von Grumbkow explore the use of emoticons in text-based communications in this journal article. The article reports on an online study to examine the social motivations behind the use of emoticons in short text-based chats online. The study includes results regarding the frequency of use in both positive and negative interactions and in interactions between strangers vs. friends. This article helps support the argument that emoticons are being used as virtual replacements for facial expressions seen in face-to-face interactions. This is a reliable and credible source. It is published in a scholarly journal and includes research, study results, and a list of references.
Fleuriet, C., Cole, M., & Guerrero, L. K. (2014). Exploring Facebook: Attachment style and nonverbal message characteristics as predictors of anticipated emotional reactions to Facebook postings. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. n.p. doi: 10.1007/s10919-014-0189-x
This article discusses the role of nonverbal cues in online interactions. Fleuriet, Cole, and Guerrero seek to explore the likelihood of a person experiencing negative emotions in response to a Facebook wall post designed to induce jealousy. Fleuriet et al. explore the emotional effects of variations in the message, such as text-only, text plus an attractive/unattractive photo of the sender, the use of all caps, exclamation points, or a winky-face emoticon. The aspect of this article that supports my research paper is the emotional response results to the message coupled with a winky-face. The participants indicated a higher level of negative emotions, supporting my argument that emoticons are able to take the place of nonverbal cues in face-to-face interactions.
Ganster, T., Eimler, S. C., & Krämer, N. C. (2012). Same same but different!? The differential influence of smilies and emoticons on person perception. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(4), 226-230.
Ganster, Eimler, and Krämer seek to explore the use of emoticons in online text-based communication. Fleuriet et al. explore the effects of smilies and emoticons on a subject’s mood, how the subject interprets the received message, and the subject’s perception of the sender. The results of this study support the argument that emoticons and smilies directly impact the impression the subject forms of the sender, supporting my research paper’s key argument. An interesting piece of this article is that it shows that the use of smilies has a greater impact than the use of emoticons. I believe that this will enhance the section of my paper where I initially explore the nonverbal cues in text-based interactions: internet short-hand and emoticons.
Jones, A. (2014). The blank-stare slate. Newsweek Global, 163(10), 50-51.
In this article, Jones examines the effects of technology on social development in children. The article’s main focus is on another study previously published in “Computers in Human Behavior.” Jones discusses the impact technology has on specific social skills like recognizing nonverbal cues and facial expressions. This article helps to support my thesis that technology and the internet is effecting our ability to read social cues, causing our emotional intelligence to be drastically impacted. This is a reliable and credible source. Newsweek is a well-known source for credible journalistic publications, and Jones also cites a credible source in her article.
Kruger, J., Epley, N., Parker, J., & Ng, Z. (2005). Egocentrism over e-mail: Can we communicate as well as we think? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(6), 925-936.
Kruger, Epley, Parker, and Ng seek to explore how the absence of paralinguistic cues (body language, gestures, tonal fluctuations, emphasis, etc.) affects our interpretation of tone and emotion when communicating over e-mail. This article explores five difference experiments, complete with methodology and the results, lending to the credibility of this source. The results of these experiments show that we often believe we can communicate far more effectively via e-mail than we actually can. This article supports my argument that we often misinterpret the tone and meaning in online text-based communication. It shows evidence that we have difficulty detaching ourselves from our own perspective to evaluate the perspective of another person when communicating online. This supports my argument that online communication is having an impact on our emotional intelligence, and specifically on empathy.
Lo, S. (2008). The nonverbal communication functions of emoticons in computer-mediated communication. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 11(5), 595-597.
This article discusses the increasing use of emoticons in text-based communications. Lo argues against past research studies that indicated that computer-based interactions lacked all nonverbal cues. Instead, Lo suggests that emoticons have taken the virtual place of the physical nonverbal cues displayed in face-to-face interactions. This article definitely provides clear support for my research paper, particularly for the section about emoticons replacing physical nonverbal cues. It is a reliable and credible source.
Manos, M. (2012). Emoticon intelligence or emotional intelligence?. Phi Kappa Phi Forum, 92(1), 26.
This article discusses the influence of technology on emotional intelligence. This article focuses on the book by Daniel Goleman titled, Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. This article discusses the effects of text-based communication on children, with a particular focus on accountability. This article provides some information that will be beneficial to my research paper, particularly its focus on social cognition and texting. While the source is fairly credible and references another reliable source, I’m not sure that it’s from a particularly strong source of publication.
Matsumoto, D., & Hwang, H. S. (2011, May). Reading facial expressions of emotion. Psychological Science Agenda, 25.
In this e-newsletter article, Matsumoto and Hwang discuss research into universal facial expressions/micro-expressions and the development of training programs to help improve one’s ability to detect emotions. Both researchers are experienced scholars in the field of psychology, with a particular focus on nonverbal behaviors and emotion. This article is also published in an e-newsletter put out on the official American Psychological Association (APA) website, further adding to its credibility as a source for information. This article provides key background information for my paper, including the initial discovery of universal facial expressions (Darwin) and defining universal facial expressions/micro-expressions.
Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. D. (2002). Emotional intelligence: Science and myth. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
This eBook discusses emotional intelligence and the psychology behind the term. It focuses on the validity of emotional intelligence and the claims behind it. The book attempts to provide an unbiased examination of emotional intelligence. This source will be highly useful in my paper as it provides an abundance of information about emotional intelligence. It provides a distinct definition for the term and relates it back to psychology. It examines the past, present, and future of emotional intelligence and its definition. This eBook is a reliable and credible source, published through MIT.
Park, J., Barash, V., Fink, C., & Cha, M. (2013). Emoticon style: Interpreting differences in emoticons across cultures. International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media.
This article discusses the use of emoticons in text-based communications. Park, Barash, Fink, and Cha argue that the use of emoticons in text-based online communication are the equivalent of nonverbal cues in face-to-face interactions. The focus is on chatrooms, forums, and social media. Park et al. discuss the cultural and social aspects of emoticons on Twitter. This article is a key source for my research paper. It not only discusses the use of emoticons in text-based conversation, but it also supports my argument that emoticons have become socio-cultural norms. This is a credible source. Park et al. discuss their methodology and other related works. This article includes the results of their findings, complete with charts and formulas. It also includes a lengthy list of references.
Uhls, Y. T., Michikyan, M., Morris, J., Garcia, D., Small, G. W., Zgourou, E., & Greenfield, P. M. (2014). Five days at outdoor education camp without screens improves preteen skills with nonverbal emotion cues. Computers in Human Behavior, 39, 387-392.
Uhls, Michikyan, Morris, Garcia, Small, Zgourou, and Greenfield seek to explore the impact technology has on specific social skills such as the recognition of nonverbal cues and facial expressions. Uhls et al. posit that an increase in opportunities for face-to-face interactions, while simultaneously eliminating the option of technology-based interactions, will improve the ability of adolescents to properly read and interpret nonverbal social cues. Uhls et al. are able to conclusively prove their theory and provide a clear method, procedure, and analysis of the study’s results. This article will be published in the October 2014 issue of Computers in Human Behavior, so it has not yet been cited by other sources, with the exception of a brief mention in a Newsweek Global article. However, this journal is a credible source and provides clear data and references to back up the findings. This article helps to support my thesis that technology and the internet is effecting our ability to read social cues, causing our emotional intelligence to be drastically impacted.
Walthier, J. B., & D’Addario, K. P. (2001). The impacts of emoticons on message interpretation in computer-mediated communication. Social Science Computer Review, 19(3), 324-347.
Walthier and D’Addario explore the empirical impacts of emoticon usage on the interpretation of messages in online text-based communications. This article provides key information for my research paper. Not only does it support my argument that emoticon usage can impact the interpretation of online messages similar to nonverbal cues in face-to-face interactions, but it also provides key background information. This article discusses the possible origins of emoticons and smilies (it appears that it’s difficult to nail down the exact time/place/creator). It discusses their usage and the various interpretations we make upon seeing an emoticon or smilie. It also provides the methodology and results of Walthier and D’Addario’s experiment, the results of which show that emoticons have a greater impact on interpretation of a message than verbal content. This article is a reliable source of information, cited by several other papers. It also includes a lengthy list of references.